Cadastral system and surveying
The cadastral register and the title and mortgage register are maintained through land survey operations and registration decisions.
The cadastral system comprises the map, the cadastral register and the title and mortgage register (land register). Maps show the boundaries of real estate and the location of parcels. All real estate and any changes in them are registered in the cadastral register. The title and mortgage register, which is based on the cadastral register, includes a list of rights concerning a property.
The administrative branch of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is responsible for maintaining the national title and mortgage register and for maintaining the cadastral register as regards areas governed by the State. Information contained in the cadastral register is produced by the National Land Survey of Finland and, in terms of areas covered by a local detailed plan, by municipalities. The cadastral register also includes the details of the cadastral index map. The cadastral register covers the whole country.
The title and mortgage register includes information on the rights and restrictions concerning a real estate to strengthen the rights of right-holders and to protect the interests of third parties. Registration matters concerning titles, mortgages and the registration of special rights are handled by the National Land Survey of Finland.
The Land Information System of Finland (KTJ) is one the society’s basic information systems. It provides access to information contained in the cadastral register and the title and mortgage register.
The purpose of cadastral surveying is to keep the cadastral system up to date when the real estate division is changed, developed or clarified. Different types of cadastral surveys include, for example, parcelling, partitioning, property definition, land consolidation, road survey and redemption.
For areas governed by the State, cadastral survey applications are processed by the National Land Survey of Finland. In areas covered by a local detailed plan, particularly in larger cities and municipalities, the surveys are conducted by municipal survey organisations.
Developing the use of real estates
The different possibilities of using real estate are improved through land rearrangements. The rearrangement of land helps improve the efficiency of agriculture and forestry, increase traffic safety, reduce climate emissions and promote the establishment of nature reserves. Land consolidation increases the efficiency of agriculture and forestry by developing the real estate structure and thereby reducing production costs. Project-related rearrangements reduce the negative impacts that projects affecting a real estate, such as public roads or various conservation projects, may have on the use of the real estate.
Land-for-land exchanges are usually based on an agreement between landowners. Other arrangement forms include, for example, redeeming and transferring an area to a real estate, establishing a jointly owned forest, replotting building land, and various arrangements concerning joint property units, easements and water areas.