Biodiversity and protection

Ecological sustainability is strengthened by protecting biodiversity and the factors influencing the functioning of ecosystems. Diverse and healthy forests create the ecological foundation on which all management and use of forests are based on. Protecting biodiversity is thus a central part of sustainable management and use of forests. As the use of wood increases in Finland, it is necessary to enhance the actions aimed at securing and protecting forest biodiversity. 

In general, Finnish forestry is based on the management of native tree species. The management of forests seeks to respect their natural growth and to mimic the natural cycle of boreal forests. The objective is to secure the production of high-quality timber and to preserve the biological diversity of forests to create the preconditions for the multiple uses of forest.

Forests host a major share of Finland’s biodiversity

A significant share of the species living in Finland are directly or indirectly dependent on forests. Approximately 31 per cent of all threatened species live in mineral soil forests. However, assessments have shown that overall, only around 9 percent of the mineral soil species are threatened, which means that Finnish forests still contain most of the species naturally occurring in them. Besides mineral forest soils, a few percent of all threatened species live in forested peatlands.

The use of forests over time has influenced different types of forest habitats, e.g., by altering the amount of dead, old-grown or deciduous trees. The changes are often a result of historical developments, which reflect the uses of wood and the changing needs of the society. Since the 1990s, protection of the biodiversity has been in the focus and the actions taken since then have successfully led to several species being no longer classified as endangered. Nevertheless, the decline in biodiversity has not yet been halted, which is why new actions are still needed.

Several actions support the protection and enhancement of biological diversity in Finnish forests 

Maintenance and enhancement of biological diversity of forests are an integral element of the Finnish forest policy, legislation and practices. In Finland, certification systems (PEFC, FSC) developed in participatory processes, which are independent of any public authorities, are widely used on a voluntary basis to ensure the sustainability of forest management. 

To protect the biodiversity of Finnish forests, both protected areas and natural management of forests are needed. Actions promoting the diversity of forests are defined in several strategies and programmes, including the Forest Biodiversity Programme for Southern Finland (METSO) 2014-2025, Helmi habitats programme 2021-2030, the National Forest Strategy 2035, the National Biodiversity Strategy 2012-2020 and its complementary Action Plan for 2013-2020. In addition, new actions are included in the ownership policy decision concerning Metsähallitus (state forests), approved in spring 2020.

A network of protected areas form the backbone of forest biodiversity conservation. Protected areas are supplemented by voluntary forest protection and biodiversity conservation in commercial forests. Majority of national parks and strict nature reserves are located in Northern Finland. Consequently, voluntary forest protection is very important and promoted by the State particularly in Southern parts of the country (e.g., in METSO Programme).

Related topics

National Forest Strategy 2035
Sustainable forest management
Forest biodiversity and protection in Finland infographs
Helmi Habitats Programme

Related links

Biodiversity (The Ministry of the Environment)
METSO programme

Further information

Katja Matveinen, Chief Specialist 
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Natural Resources Department, Metsä- ja biotalousyksikkö Telephone:0295162287   Email Address:

Ville Schildt, Ministerial Adviser 
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Natural Resources Department, Metsä- ja biotalousyksikkö Telephone:0295162190   Email Address: