Genetic resources that are vital for Finnish agriculture and forestry have adapted to the local natural and environmental conditions over thousands of years, which makes them unique. The conservation of genetic resources ensures access to diverse genetic material for the needs of farmers, breeders and research, now and in the future. Genetic resources of agriculture, varieties of crops and breeds of livestock are the foundation of our food security. The genetic diversity of fish and wild forest trees is a precondition for their viability and utilisation.
The conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources and access to them are governed by national genetic resources programmes that are based on the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (1993), the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (2004) and the Nagoya Protocol (2010). The genetic resources programmes also implement FAO’s Global Plans of Action (GPA) for different sectors, and reporting on genetic resources takes place in the reports under these action plans and in the state of the world reports. The objectives of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (2022) will be implemented nationally through the National Biodiversity Strategy and action plan until 2035 that is currently being prepared. The policies related to the conservation of genetic resources are also guided by FAO’s Framework for Action on Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (2022).
The Advisory Board for the Genetic Resources of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery serves as the expert body of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in the preparation of matters related to the conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources. The genetic resources programmes are coordinated by the Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke).
Besides the genetic diversity of species used for production, agrobiodiversity comprises the biological diversity of wild species associated with it. This includes e.g. the species diversity of bumblebee communities and ecosystem diversity of networks composed of field margins. Agrobiodiversity is the foundation of ecosystem services such as pollination and circulation of nutrients that maintain agricultural, forestry and fishery production. Agrobiodiversity maintains the vitality and productivity of arable lands and forests and other environments where agricultural production takes place.
Advisory Board for the Genetic Resources of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery 2022-2027
Conservation of the genetic diversity of agricultural plants and animals
Conservation of forest genetic resources
Genetic resources programmes of the Natural Resources Institute Finland (in Finnish)
Nordic Genetic Resource Center - NordGen
Genetic resources policy of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Finland’s National Genetic Resources Programme for Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery
Finland’s biodiversity policy (Ministry of the Environment) – strategy and action plan until 2035
Act on the Implementation of the Nagoya Protocol under the Convention on Biological Diversity (Genetic Resources Act, in Finnish)
Regulation (EU) No 511/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council on compliance measures for users from the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization in the Union
FAO portal on genetic resources for food and agriculture
Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (FAO)
International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (FAO)
Framework for Action on Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture (FAO)
Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing (CBD)
Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (CBD)